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DE TOTSTANDKOMING VAN MEETINSTRUMENTEN VAN EMPOWERMENT ONDER DE LOEP. INSTRUMENTONTWIKKELING VOLGENS DE KWALITEITSSTANDAARDEN, EEN KRITISCHE BESCHOUWING

Authors:

Thomas Noordink ,

Thomas Noordink, MSc is a doctoral researcher at the Tilburg University, Tilburg School of Social and Behavioral Sciences and lecturer at HAN University of Applied Sciences, NL
About Thomas
Thomas Noordink, MSc is a doctoral researcher at the Tilburg University, Tilburg School of Social and Behavioral Sciences and lecturer at HAN University of Applied Sciences.
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Lisbeth Verharen,

Dr. Lisbeth Verharen is professor Strengthening Social Quality at HAN University of Applied Sciences., NL
About Lisbeth
Dr. Lisbeth Verharen is professor Strengthening Social Quality at HAN University of Applied Sciences.
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René Schalk,

Prof. dr. René Schalk is associated with the departments of Human Resource Studies and Tranzo at Tilburg University, the Netherlands. He is extraordinary professor at the Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences of North-West University, South Africa. His research interests cover the broad areas of social work and employee well-being and performance. His research has a special focus on the dynamics of psychological contracts and empowerment., NL
About René
Prof. dr. René Schalk is associated with the departments of Human Resource Studies and Tranzo at Tilburg University, the Netherlands. He is extraordinary professor at the Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences of North-West University, South Africa. His research interests cover the broad areas of social work and employee well-being and performance. His research has a special focus on the dynamics of psychological contracts and empowerment.
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Tine van Regenmortel

Prof. dr. Tine Van Regenmortel is professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Head of the Research Group Social and Economic Policy & Social Inclusion at the Research Institute for Work and Society (HIVA KU Leuven), University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Tilburg University, Tilburg School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Tranzo, Tilburg, the Netherlands., BE
About Tine
Prof. dr. Tine Van Regenmortel is professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Head of the Research Group Social and Economic Policy & Social Inclusion at the Research Institute for Work and Society (HIVA KU Leuven), University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Tilburg University, Tilburg School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Tranzo, Tilburg, the Netherlands.
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Abstract

SAMENVATTING

Empowerment is een centraal begrip binnen het sociaal werk in Nederland en Vlaanderen. Er is behoefte aan meetinstrumenten die de empowerende effecten van hulpaanbod blootleggen. De wijze waarop meetinstrumenten ontwikkeld worden, lijkt echter invloed te hebben op de kwaliteit van de instrumenten (Steenssens, Van Regenmortel & Schalk, 2017). Een vijftal kwaliteitsstandaarden is ontwikkeld, waarmee uitspraken gedaan kunnen worden over de kwaliteit van de totstandkoming van dergelijke meetinstrumenten. Om zicht te krijgen op de waarde

van deze kwaliteitsstandaarden wordt in dit artikel de wijze waarop een drietal empowerment meetinstrumenten ontwikkeld zijn, kritisch beschouwd vanuit deze standaarden. Dit is gedaan door semigestructureerde interviews met ontwikkelaars te combineren met analyses van bestaand materiaal over de instrumenten. De kwaliteitsstandaarden blijken een kader te bieden met richtlijnen voor instrumentontwikkeling. Het blijkt van belang om goed af te bakenen wat gemeten
wordt, zodat een volledig beeld van empowerment verkregen wordt. Verder is goede afstemming tussen contextspecifieke elementen en meer generieke elementen in itemopbouw nodig en is betrokkenheid van de doelgroep bij instrumentontwikkeling noodzakelijk. 

SUMMARY
Empowerment is a central concept within social work in the Netherlands and Flanders. Both citizens, professionals and politics require measuring instruments that expose the empowering effect of social interventions. There are various measuring instruments that aim to measure different levels of empowerment. The way in which measuring instruments are developed, however, seems to affect the quality of the instrument. Important is the way in which an instrument is based on the theoretical framework; the extent to which the target group is involved in the development of an instrument; the extent to which the definition of the concept of empowerment is aligned with the perception of the target group. To this end and with this in mind, five quality standards have been developed in Flanders, and tested in the context of organization empowerment and in the context of social work, with which statements can be made about the value of the creation of a measuring tool for empowerment. These relate to the scope of the instrument, the context specificity of the instrument, the extent to which the target group is involved in the development, the extent to which the target group is involved in the use of the instrument and the extent to which the instrument distinguishes processes and outcomes of empowerment. In this article, the way in which a number of measurement tools of empowerment have been developed is critically considered and evaluated based on these quality standards, in order to gain insight into the value of these quality standards as a framework for developing instruments. The last standard, concerning processes and outcomes is not taking into account, due to the limited research design and the limited time frame of this study.

The development of three validated measuring instruments that are used in social work, have been studied by combining semi-structured interviews with the developers with existing material about the instruments. The five quality standards formed the starting point for the questions to the developers, looking for similarities and deviations between the development of their instrument and the standards.

The quality standards offer a quality framework and provide insight into the development possibilities of measuring instruments. One conclusion confirms the importance of a good definition of what is measured so that a complete picture of empowerment can be acquired. It became apparent that a tension arises when developers deviate from the theoretical framework of empowerment in determining which items should be included and only the perception of the target group was a determining factor, even though the perception of the target group is crucial for the creation of a fitting instrument. Related to this, the target group of an instrument can, in addition to the clients of social workers, also be defined as the social workers themselves. They represent the professional perspective of empowerment in the lives of their clients. Furthermore, a good match between context-specific elements and more generic elements in item building seems promising. The extent to which the target group is involved in the use of the instrument and in the processing of the data depends on the organizations that use the instrument, the developers state that they have no influence on this. While using the various instruments, social workers found out that the measurements of empowerment, in addition to the numerical value, also form a relevant and practical ‘conversation tool’ for social workers, with which they discuss possibilities and limitations with their clients

 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18352/jsi.584
How to Cite: Noordink, T., Verharen, L., Schalk, R. and Regenmortel, T. van ., 2019. DE TOTSTANDKOMING VAN MEETINSTRUMENTEN VAN EMPOWERMENT ONDER DE LOEP. INSTRUMENTONTWIKKELING VOLGENS DE KWALITEITSSTANDAARDEN, EEN KRITISCHE BESCHOUWING. Journal of Social Intervention: Theory and Practice, 28(4), pp.24–47. DOI: http://doi.org/10.18352/jsi.584
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Published on 20 Jun 2019.
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